Yvonne Mamothusi Harvey – Three women.(Image: Art Bank Joburg) Art Bank Joburg, the only initiative of its kind in South Africa, is providing a much-needed platform for emerging local artists to showcase their work.Art Bank Joburg owns some of South Africa’s best art by upcoming and established local artists, proving that the country can be proud of its outstanding artistic talent.The initiative is now in its fourth year, and in spite of a tough economic climate, and declining corporate budgets for art, it continues to provide exposure for South African artists.“We have such a diversity of talent in South Africa – there are people from so many walks of life and this situation produces great variety in South African art,” says Vishnu Singh, GM of Creative Industries for the City of Joburg.The initiative was the brainchild of Ben Ngubane, the former minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. Ngubane was introduced to the Canadian Art Bank concept on a visit to Ottawa in Canada, and decided that a similar project in South Africa could support local artists.Art Bank Joburg was established by the City of Joburg to buy art from emerging and established artists in the city, and then lease it to public and private sector clients. The art finds a temporary home in corporate reception areas, offices, and government departments in the city, such as the Johannesburg High Court, the Department of Arts, Culture and Heritage, Metro Police and the Office of the Speaker. Monash University leases one of the largest collections.The bank was established in Newtown, Johannesburg’s arts and culture hub, but has since also opened a satellite branch just off Nelson Mandela Square in the business district of Sandton, north of the city centre.Real benefits for emerging artistsOne of the biggest difficulties for local artists is earning a sustainable income from their art. However, through the Art Bank initiative, artists benefit directly.Prospective works are assessed by a committee of respected members of the art community, who then decide if the Art Bank should purchase the piece. If the committee agrees that it is a valuable addition to the collection, Art Bank Joburg buys the art at its current market value and the artist receives payment immediately.Artworks are leased to clients at a fee of 20% of market value, and are reevaluated annually.Singh says that the bank’s main focus is sourcing art from emerging artists. “We want to take their work and give them exposure and access to the market,” he says.The team has never struggled to find good art, either. “The artists usually find us,” he says.On Wednesdays, Art Bank Joburg hosts an open day where artists can present their works. This gives them the confidence of knowing that there is a place where they can take their art for consideration.If a particular piece has potential, Art Bank Joburg takes a photo of it and registers it on its database for later evaluation. Some of the art also comes to them through workshops and incubator projects in and around Johannesburg.If an artist can’t make it to the open day they may make an appointment to visit at a more convenient time.Emerging and established artistsThe bank houses art from both emerging and established artists, in a variety of media including paint, sculpture, photography, wire art, mosaics, print-making, mixed media and craft. Singh says just about any art medium is welcome, as long as the work is not created from biodegradable materials.Work by well-known artists such as William Kentridge (a donation to Art Bank Joburg), Robert Hodgins, Sam Nhlengethwa, David Koloane, Penny Siopis and Pat Mautloa is also available.Leasing art can be a form of corporate social investment. It also contributes to cultural development in Johannesburg and provides good market exposure for local artists.Some of the leased art has led to private sales – if a client likes the art, Art Bank Joburg puts them in contact with the artist for further commissions. Singh says that artists such as John Vusi Mfupi, who specialises in collage art, first received exposure through the Art Bank Joburg and went on to receive international recognition for his work.According to African Colours, a website that promotes contemporary African art, most of Mfupi’s work has been purchased by corporate companies and the South African high court. He has also exhibited abroad in Scotland, Malaysia, Germany, Portugal, Brussels and in the Netherlands at The Hague.For many people, the arts remain a highbrow affair but as more art is leased from Art Bank Joburg, it becomes more accessible. In a corporate or public space, people who would usually not show an interest in art, or do not have access to it, have the opportunity to engage with high quality artwork.“As people are exposed to art, they learn to appreciate it,” Singh says.
South Africa is pressed to conserve its drinking water. (Image: Clever Green) Pupils in a Pretoria school using water. (Image: Bongani Nkosi) MEDIA CONTACTS • Sputnik Ratau Spokesperson Department of Water Affairs +27 12 336 6813 or +27 82 874 2942 RELATED ARTICLES • Courts to protect South Africa’s water • Absa Campus generates its own power • R500m water deal for rural SA • Better water supply for SA schoolsBongani NkosiIt has become a “moral imperative” for major businesses operating in South Africa to adopt water saving schemes for their buildings, thereby helping the country sustain the declining resource.CEO of car rental company Avis, Wayne Duvenage, did not mince his words at the Sustainable Water Resource Conference and Exhibition. The event, held in Kempton Park on 16 and 17 August, was attended by leading water experts and businesspeople and supported by the International Marketing Council of South Africa – among a range of sponsors.Recycling water for reuse in buildings was the experts’ principal recommendation. Homeowners are also advised to go for recycling technologies.Avis saved 75-million litres of water in 2010 in its major centres in Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban.The Avis scheme kicked off in 2008 with a R1.9-million (US$264 000) investment, and started paying off in 2009 when the company saved 4.2-million litres.Avis has pumped an additional R1.5-million ($208 000) into the construction of underground water filtration and recycling facilities at its three main depots. The aim is to save at least 95-million litres of water each year.“We decided to recycle water because that was the right thing to do,” said Duvenage. “We’re recycling water that was going down the drain.”The company reprocesses grey water from washing machines and baths, which is then used to wash most of its fleet of 20 000 rental cars, while potable water from public sources remains available to employees for hygienic use.Harvesting rainwater is a focus of Avis’ recycling efforts. “You know how much it rains in Cape Town, so it’s nice to switch off municipal water and use rainwater,” said Duvenage.It’s always recommended for entities to study the impact of their business on the environment, he pointed out.Conserving a precious resourceSouth Africa is water-stressed, experts at the conference revealed. Reports have pointed out that the country runs the risk of facing critical shortages by 2020.“South Africa is stressed both in the quantity and quantity of water that we have,” Duvenage said.Alison Groves, a sustainability consultant at WSP Green by Design, said: “In South Africa we need to get beyond the idea that water is always going to be available.”New solutions are needed to sustain potable water availability, Groves added.Her consultancy group has established itself as an industry leader in the greening of major buildings, having helped big companies such as Absa, Nedbank and Woolworths introduce water-saving and eco-friendly schemes in their properties.Banking group Absa’s headquarters in downtown Johannesburg have been fitted with recycling and rainwater harvesting technology that allows it to save at least 43 000 litres of water every day.Retailer Woolworths’ distribution centre in Midrand, north of Johannesburg, is another facility with a large grey water reclamation system. Groves pointed out that the centre has “irrigation ensured for 10 months per year without using potable water”.Woolworths saves R1-million ($139 000) in municipal water bills per year thanks to its recycling efforts.Other companies, such as South African Breweries, are rolling out major water-saving schemes in a bid to help protect the precious resource.Duvenage pointed out that “business is starting to change its behaviour” in accordance with the green revolution, but there is room for improvement. “We believe business has to act much faster,” he said.Residences can reduce consumptionIt’s not only businesses and public entities that should assume the responsibility of saving water, but homeowners can play a major role as well.The grey water technology of Cape Town-based Water Rhapsody, a specialist water conservation company, has proven its efficiency in recent years.Its founder Jeremy Westgarth-Taylor said that water recycled and harvested through its system is suitable for irrigation, toilet flushing, cleaning and washing.Homes can reduce consumption from 280 litres to “as little as 100 litres per day” and save up to 90% of their municipal water bill by using the system.“But it’s done in such a way that you don’t change your lifestyle. You just take control of your own supply,” said Westgarth-Taylor.Water Rhapsody won the WWF Green Trust award in 1998 for product innovation. It’s helped the University of Cape Town reduce potable water consumption by over 90%.The late Kader Asmal, former Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry, told Water Rhapsody, in a 2010 letter to the company, that its water recycling system helped nourish grass and shrubs in the garden of his Cape Town home.
Water, one of the most common substances on Earth, has served up yet another scientific surprise. In its liquid state, water molecules cling to one another through so-called hydrogen bonding, constantly making and breaking bonds as they jumble about. And within the smallest possible 3D droplet of water, which consists of just six molecules, those molecules can rearrange themselves not just one at a time, but in sets of two, as shown in the video above. Two molecules can simultaneously break their hydrogen bonds with their neighbors and rotate off one another like gears. The reconfiguration takes place through a subtle effect called quantum tunneling, in which the droplet does not have enough energy to wriggle from one configuration to the other, but simply pops from one to the other as if burrowing through an energy barrier, a team of chemists reports today in Science. And because the dual bond–breaking could play a role in how water behaves in cells and on mineral interfaces, the substance continues to be a font of insight.
Michigan Football’s 2016 schedule poster is out. But one of the team’s division rivals isn’t exactly thrilled with the way it looks.Michigan Football dropped its 2016 schedule poster Monday morning, and per usual, it features the logos of the 12 opponents it’ll face during the regular season this year. But one – Maryland – is a bit unhappy with some changes the Wolverines made to its mark. Maryland’s logo, for whatever reason, doesn’t feature the flag bar that typically runs below the famed “M.”Maryland called out Michigan on Twitter. The Wolverines have not responded.Coming soon. #GoBlue pic.twitter.com/V18zMKMoX3— Michigan Football (@UMichFootball) August 21, 2016Is the rest of our logo coming soon? #RespectTheFlagBar https://t.co/M5ZoE4PUSn— Maryland Terrapins (@umterps) August 22, 2016For reference, here’s what Maryland’s logo actually looks like.It’s also worth noting that Michigan did not put Ohio State’s real logo on its poster. That’s clearly some kind of shot at the Buckeyes.We’re not sure if a logo mixup will provide motivation for the Terrapins this year – but perhaps that game is now a little more interesting.
Tourism Minister, Hon. Edmund Bartlett, says the local industry is on track to become Jamaica’s fastest growing economic engagement.This, he said, is based on the sector’s significant inflows to the gross domestic product (GDP), and on the fact that its contribution, in the last two and a half years in particular, “has grown faster than every industry in the country”.The Minister was speaking at a ceremony to announce the 19 semi-finalists vying for the 2018 Tourism Service Excellence Awards (TSEA), at the Spanish Court Hotel in New Kingston on Tuesday (March 12).Mr. Bartlett reiterated that Jamaica welcomed a record 4.31 million tourists in 2018 and generated approximately US$3.3 billion in earnings.This, he pointed out, enabled the industry to employ 120,000 people directly, and generate another 250,000 indirect jobs.The Minister further said based on preliminary figures, tourism contributed US$450 million or 22 per cent of the revenue flowing into the GDP, adding that the overall US$3.3-billion visitor expenditure accounted for approximately 50 per cent of Jamaica’s foreign exchange inflows for 2018.Mr. Bartlett, who noted that the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN) is still putting together the final GDP figures for 2018, indicated that the equivalent 2017 out-turn showed that tourism’s contribution to the national growth figures increased by 0.6 per cent, moving from 8.4 to nine per cent.Meanwhile, the Minister said the industry’s growth prospects internationally are increasingly positive and expected to redound to the country’s benefit, in light of the fact that “Jamaica’s tourism growth mirrors the growth globally”.This, he noted, is against the background of local and global industry developments over the last five decades, and future prospects.The Minister said 50 years ago, some 200 million people travelled globally for touristic purposes and spent approximately US$300 billion.Mr. Bartlett said these out-turns skyrocketed in 2018, which saw 1.4 billion people travelling and spending US$1.6 trillion.In Jamaica’s case, he said 400,000 tourists visited 50 years ago and spent US$300 million, adding that those figures jumped to 4.31 million and US$3.3 billion last year.While noting that tourism accounts for 11 per cent of global GDP, second only to the finance and banking industry’s 19 per cent, Mr. Bartlett said the industry represents 30 per cent of trade in services across the world.“Tourism is now seen as the fastest and only industry that has grown consistently for the last 50 years… with projections for more growth in the future,” he added.The 2018 Tourism Service Excellence Awards ceremony is slated for Saturday, March 30 in Montego Bay.The event will recognise and honour individuals and organisations across the industry who have distinguished themselves through service excellence. Tourism Minister, Hon. Edmund Bartlett, says the local industry is on track to become Jamaica’s fastest growing economic engagement. Story Highlights The Minister was speaking at a ceremony to announce the 19 semi-finalists vying for the 2018 Tourism Service Excellence Awards (TSEA), at the Spanish Court Hotel in New Kingston on Tuesday (March 12). This, he said, is based on the sector’s significant inflows to the gross domestic product (GDP), and on the fact that its contribution, in the last two and a half years in particular, “has grown faster than every industry in the country”.
Chennai: A depression over the Indian Ocean and southeast Bay of Bengal has intensified and moved further northwestwards, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) said Saturday. It is very likely to intensify into a cyclonic storm during next 12 hours and further into a severe cyclonic storm, the IMD said and warned fishermen against venturing into the sea on Sunday. “The depression over east Equatorial Indian Ocean and adjoining southeast Bay of Bengal moved further northwestwards, intensified into a deep depression and lay centered about 870 km east-southeast of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 1210 km southeast of Chennai and 1500 km south-southeast of Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh,” it said. Also Read – Normal life remains disrupted for 64th day in Kashmir Valley”It is very likely to intensify into a cyclonic storm during next 12 hours and further into a severe cyclonic storm during subsequent 24 hours,” the IMD said. Further, the system is very likely to move northwestwards off Sri Lanka coast during the next 72 hours and reach near north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coasts on April 30. On Sunday, gale wind speed reaching 80-90 kmph gusting to 100 kmph and very rough to high seas are very likely over southwest Bay of Bengal adjoining east Equatorial Indian Ocean along and off Sri Lanka coast, the weather office said.
New Delhi/ Mumbai: Loan exposure worth Rs 12,000 crore of almost 55 green companies of crisis-hit IL&FS group is likely to be settled by July end, a senior government official said as he asserted that the resolution process is on track. Besides, many of the green companies have positive equity which means that after settling debt obligations, shareholders would “get something in return for their equity stake”, Corporate Affairs Secretary Injeti Srinivas said.The board of diversified IL&FS group, which is estimated to have a debt burden of over Rs 94,000 crore, was superseded by the corporate affairs ministry in October last year. Since then, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)-appointed board is managing the affairs to ensure orderly settlement. As part of the resolution efforts, the group companies have been classified into three categories, mainly based on their financial positions — green, amber and red. Srinivas said the IL&FS resolution process is on track and expects to reach “some kind of conclusion” in a time-bound manner. There are almost 55 companies in the green category and they have a loan exposure of about Rs 12,000 crore. Ten out of the 55 companies account for nearly 90 per cent of the loan exposure, he noted. Meanwhile, IL&FS Securities Services (ISS) Wednesday moved the Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) to direct markets regulator Sebi to annul certain transactions carried out by Allied Financial Services. In February, Sebi had barred Allied Financial and others for misappropriating client securities and a host of other violations. Appearing for IL&FS Securities counsel Gaurav Joshi said there were fraudulent mutual fund transfers carried out by Allied on behalf of its clients Dalmia Cement and OCL India, among others where it was the clearing house. He sought SAT’s intervention to direct Sebi to annul the said transaction, apart from de-freezing of securities which are stuck following the Sebi order. In February, the Sebi had barred brokerage Allied Financial, its five directors and four other entities from securities markets for misappropriating client securities and other violations. It had also barred them from disposing of or alienating any assets, or create or invoke any charge on their assets, without its prior permission. The Sebi had probed the alleged irregularities at Allied, pursuant to a preliminary inspection by the NSE had found non-availability of client funds worth Rs 94 crore, non-availability of client securities, non-settlement of inactive clients and non-segregation of transaction between own and client bank accounts. “In the green category, the major focus is on settling dues with respect to those ten large companies. If the dues of the ten companies can be settled, then 90 per cent of the Rs 12,000 crore can be settled… By July end, we will be aspiring to settle the debt of green companies, which is around Rs 12,000 crore,” said Srinivas. Srinivas also said there are a few cases where creditors are willing to restructure the entire loan to make ‘amber’ assets green. “We are open to that. If they can be made into green, then around Rs 2,000 to 4,000 crore of debt may shift from amber to green,” he noted. The amber companies have debt obligations worth around Rs 20,000 crore and since there is a moratorium, the dues of these firms are not being paid yet. Amber companies are those that have enough money to pay senior secured creditors but not unsecured ones. “We are not paying the dues yet, which is being heavily contested in NCLAT by the creditors… If the secured creditors want distribution of available funds before final resolution, they would have to file their final claims. The interim payments made prior to resolution of the corporate debtor, would automatically get adjusted against the final claim,” Srinivas said. He said one option could be that senior creditors get precedence and the residual amount would go to unsecured creditors.
New Delhi: With the help of Anganwadi’s, Non-Governmental Organizations and children groups, the Delhi Commission for Protection of Child Rights (DCPCR) are keeping a tab on the child marriages in the city.According to the child rights body, they have asked these three groups to remain alert every time especially in the months of May, June and July. “During these months, summer holiday begins and we are probing a fact whether families took their children to their native’s place for conducting child marriage,” DCPCR official said. Also Read – More good air days in Delhi due to Centre’s steps: JavadekarThe DCPCR official Rita Singh said that currently in four districts of city, awareness programme against child marriage is going on. The focus is given on the clusters. “We have told Anganwadi’s, Non-Governmental Organizations and children groups to inform the commission if they found anything suspicious,” said Singh. She further said that they have told Anganwadi’s to keep a regular tab on the children who are registered with them. “Some NGOs have small children groups who inform them about any suspicious activities related to kids. The NGOs can further inform commission for the solution,” added DCPCR official. Also Read – Union min Hardeep Singh Puri, Delhi L-G lay foundation stones for various projects in DwarkaAccording to the child rights body, they have conducted 40-day awareness programmes in different clusters this year. “With the help of street plays, paintings, we have conducted awareness,” said Singh. The official further stated that more focus was given in the months of January, February and March when parents are here in the city with their children. “They were told about the menace of child marriage,” added official. The DCPCR is currently probing a case of child marriage involving a minor boy. With the help of an NGO, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) made a report (titled India Child Marriage and teenage pregnancy) has revealed that the child marriage has long term negative consequences for both boys and girls. The adverse effect of early marriage on girls is grave. This includes early pregnancy, educational setbacks, lower employment prospects, exposure to violence and abuse-leading to negative physical and psychological outcomes.
Messi makes more passes than the other forwards, with a higher percentage of those passes trying to advance the ball toward the goal, and a higher percentage of those passes finding their targets (typical Messi!). His 3,800-plus completed forward passes are nearly twice as many as any forward in our data set (Francesco Totti for FC Roma has 2,200, followed by Wayne Rooney, the English striker, with 1,800 and Ronaldo with 1,500).One measure of the quality of a group of passes is how many are completed successfully, but it also matters what happens when those passes get where they’re going. It doesn’t help if a player passes 60 yards to someone swarmed with defenders. So a useful metric (made possible by play-by-play data) is the percentage of a player’s passes that lead to “successful” plays on the other end — meaning the receiving player manages to get off a shot, or passes the ball to someone else, and so on.As it turns out, not only does Messi pass the ball forward aggressively, he does so accurately, and the balls he delivers are “successful” a very high percentage of the time.For example, let’s look at Messi’s long ball forward passes from the midfield area. I’ve created a scatter comparing each player’s completion percentage for these passes to the percentage of them that are “successful,” and I’ve shown the volume of long pass attempts for each player as bubble sizes:Messi is among the most accurate passers for both metrics, and no one with as many attempts is more accurate.11Yes, that giant bubble in the middle is Wayne Rooney. There are players who complete a higher percentage of these passes and/or are more “successful” with them, but they’re typically being more selective in their attempts. For example, Ronaldo’s “success” rate of 60 percent beats Messi’s 54 percent (with a slightly lower completion percentage), but Ronaldo has only 35 successful long ball passes to Messi’s 81.Given that, it’s no surprise that Messi excels at the through-ball, the delicate and gorgeous play that requires perfect circumstances and perfect timing to be successful. Messi attempts almost twice as many of these passes as any other forward, and still manages to beat the trend.And then there’s the bread and butter of aggressive passing: moving it toward the goal on the opponent’s side of the field. In attacking territory, no one attacks as often as Messi does, and no one has more success doing so.These passes are where most assists come from, and indeed, Messi has the most assists per game from these kinds of passes of any forward, by a large margin. And again, despite making twice as many attempts as most people, he beats expectations.Touch by TouchBy this point, it should be evident that Messi has at least a little bit of skill. But there’s still heavy lifting to do: We have to show that he actually makes his team better.First, to ensure that we’re celebrating the greatness of Messi and not the greatness of Barcelona, we need to make sense of Messi on Barcelona. The easiest way to do that is to evaluate Barcelona without Messi, also known as the Spanish national team.The contrast between Spain in 2010 and Spain in 2014 seems huge: The 2010 team won the World Cup, and the 2014 team was tied for first in the tournament to be mathematically eliminated. But lost in this narrative is that the 2010 championship team wasn’t all that great, at least on offense. That World Cup team scored fewer goals per game than this year’s: only eight goals in seven games in 2010, while this year’s group-stage dropouts scored four goals in three. (That’s 1.2 goals per game overall.) For comparison, in the 2010-11 UEFA Champions League (the highest level of competition for European club soccer), Barcelona scored 30 goals in 13 games. In 47 UEFA matches since 2010, Barcelona has scored 104 goals, or 1.08 goals per game more than a Spanish team comprised of a similar offensive core and using the same “tiki-taka” playing style, minus Lionel Messi.Perhaps that’s an unfair comparison to make — but it’s consistent with the theory that Barcelona’s “play keep away until lightning strikes” offense really only works when it has Messi as its striker.Between Messi’s shots taken and chances created, he is responsible for about 48 percent of Barcelona’s regular (non-penalty, non-set play) shot attempts. Yet he and the players he assists score about 60 percent of Barca’s goals.In fact, the more involved Messi is in a shot attempt, the more likely his team is to score. He has scored on 22.1 percent of his regular (non-set, non-penalty, non-shootout) shots for Barca himself. The people to whom he’s dished assists and chances have scored on 18.1 percent of their shots. Meanwhile, Barcelona shots that didn’t come from Messi’s foot12Or other non-arm body part. But he mostly uses his feet. or Messi’s passing scored just 12.5 percent of the time.Even though Barcelona is one of the best teams in the world, there’s a huge difference between when Messi is involved in creating shots and chances and when he isn’t. Here are the equivalent differences for all players since 2010 with more than 100 games played and four or more shots or assist chances per game:Of course, these are raw shooting percentages and don’t account for the types of shots each player is taking or assisting, or the number of attempts. It’s generally harder to stay valuable over a larger number of shots, and we haven’t yet factored in that difficulty.For that, we turn back to the goals above average model, which compares each shot or chance outcome with its expectation. From this, we can tell whether a player has exceeded expectations for all of his shot attempts and chances created. Then we can do the same for all shots taken by his team without the player’s involvement, and compare the two. For example, if the player scored .02 goals above expectation per shot attempt, and the rest of his team scored -.01 goals less than expectation, that player’s value-added would be +.03 goals per shot (the value above replacement for that player on that team). Now let’s plot that added value against each player’s13Among players who played 100 games with two or more shots per game and one or more chance created per game. total offensive participation (the percentage of team shots he’s involved with):Finally, after however many charts, we see a diminishing return. At least for everyone not named Lionel Messi. He once again tops the field, impervious to the burden.But that’s just what happens once the shots are lined up. If we want to explore a player’s efficiency, we have to look into his touches more deeply. For this purpose, I created a stat called “possessions used.” It’s a little bit analogous to usage rate in basketball, and incorporates the number of touches in which a player:Takes a shot;Passes the ball to a player who takes a shot;Turns the ball over;Tries to pass the ball and fails;Tries to take on a defender and fails.In other words, it’s a stat meant to reflect anything that ends a team’s possession, whether that outcome is positive or negative. Events that simply prolong the possession (taking on a defender and succeeding, or passing the ball to another teammate who does not take a shot) aren’t factored in.Obviously passing the ball is an important skill (which I covered a bit above), but for this metric I just want to know about the relative likelihood of good outcomes (goals, assists) to bad ones (misses, turnovers, etc.) when the player does something possession-ending.14This also somewhat neutralizes any statistical advantage for players who play for pass-happy teams like Barcelona. Looking at players who “use” more than 15 possessions per game, we can plot possessions used against scoring and assists like so:Cutting out all the passing that doesn’t end in a shot, Messi generates the most points per touch of any player with a similar usage rate. But there are a couple of other important things to notice in this graph: Despite not taking as many shots, Messi uses more possessions per game than Ronaldo does. This is generally because Messi is much more likely to take on defenders, and thus is much more likely to lose possession of the ball or turn it over entirely. (He is also relatively more likely to set up a potential assist.)Importantly, turnovers in soccer aren’t as big of a deal as they are in basketball or American football. Shots, even bad ones, are more of a limited resource in soccer than possessions. Risking a turnover to increase your chances of scoring a goal even by a small amount can be worth it.Finally, Messi’s defense is consistent with that of a high-volume striker.15Which is to say, players who’ve logged 100-plus games, taken an average of three or more shots per game, and who’ve made at least 50 percent of their touches in the attacking third. That he’s practically munchkin-sized (he’s only 1.69 met — ahem, excuse me — 5’ 7” tall) seems not to matter.To look at Messi’s defensive skill, I combined successful tackles,16I didn’t count missed tackles as either positive or negative, because they aren’t nearly as bad as a successful tackle is good. interceptions and blocked shots, then adjusted for number of opponent possessions (as I did with offense above).There are a few lines where Messi’s stats are considerably worse than his peers’ (meaning Ronaldo’s): He doesn’t get a lot of clearances — although this is partly style, as Messi is more willing to pass out of defensive territory (or even take on defenders). And he doesn’t go for (or succeed at) a lot of aerials (50-50 balls in the air). While I haven’t studied this aspect of his game in depth, soccer experts in the FiveThirtyEight office theorize that it has something to do with his stature.ConclusionHow should Argentina fans feel about all this, given the disappointment they’ve experienced in World Cups past and the hopes they’ve pinned on Messi this year? So far in the 2014 tournament, Messi has been erasing whatever gap there was between his Barcelona stats and his Argentina stats, with style. And that gap was never really as big as it appeared.Since the 2010 World Cup, Messi has scored 19 goals and six assists for Argentina in 22 games (.9 goals per game and .3 assists per game, compared to 1.1 and .4 for Barca). For shooting/assisting efficiency, he has scored .199 GAA per game for Argentina versus .262 for Barca. He also has better defensive stats for Argentina, so even if there are persistent differences, it’s quite possible it has to do with style and Messi’s role on each team rather than the quality of his play.And 22 games is a tiny sample. Even so, these stats are perfectly consistent with the argument that Messi is the best footballer on earth: That .199 GAA is better than the .175 GAA per game that Ronaldo has earned at Real Madrid since 2010. This is what that .199 GAA looks like:In other words, if Barca-Messi and Argentina-Messi were two different people, even based solely on the stats recorded since 2010, there’s a good chance they’d be the two best players in the world.One of them is playing on Tuesday.CORRECTION (July 1, 12:32 p.m.): The axes in an earlier version of the chart on through-balls above misstated what they measured. The chart shows attempted through-balls and through-ball assists, not attempted and successful assists.CORRECTION (July 1, 1:06 p.m.): This article originally misstated that Cristiano Ronaldo had 289 goals since the 2010 World Cup. He had 230 goals, and 59 assists in that time, for 289 combined goals and assists.CORRECTION (July 7, 7:29 a.m.): An earlier version of this article also incorrectly said that Ronaldo had 41 successful long ball passes when in fact he had 35. In their Group F World Cup match late last month, Argentina and Iran were still deadlocked after 90 minutes. With the game in stoppage time and the score tied at 0-0, Lionel Messi took the ball near the right corner of the penalty area, held it for a moment, then broke left, found his seam, took his strike and curled it in from 29 yards. What was going to be a draw was now a win, and Messi had put Argentina into the Round of 16.It was the sort of play that inspired the phrase “Messi magic.” But for those who only watch soccer when the World Cup rolls around, this was probably only the second (or at most third) goal they’d seen from the little man they call La Pulga (“The Flea”). Despite having 407 career goals in club and international play (including a record 91 in 2012 alone) and a record four Ballon d’Or (World Player of the Year) awards, until this year’s tournament, Messi hadn’t scored in a World Cup match since 2006.Since scoring an eerily familiar goal in the 2007 Copa Del Rey, Messi has constantly been compared to Argentine great and his former national team coach Diego Maradona. Despite his young age — he turned 27 on June 24 — Messi has taken substantial criticism in Argentina and elsewhere for failing to engineer a World Cup run like that of the man with the “Hand of God.”To Argentina devotees, it probably doesn’t help that during Messi’s tenure at FC Barcelona the club team has won two FIFA Club World Cups to go with six La Liga and three UEFA (All-European) championships.Perhaps this year will be different. Messi is finally having the kind of World Cup expected of him. He has scored in every game so far (four goals overall), including one on a beautiful free kick against Nigeria and the aforementioned game-winner against Iran. As of this writing, FiveThirtyEight gives Messi and his compatriots a 16 percent chance of winning the tournament — second only to host nation Brazil.Even though national teams are patchwork and only play together for a handful of games each year, how Messi plays with Argentina relates to what is ultimately a fair criticism of his success: Most of it has come for FC Barcelona, a free-spending virtual all-star squad, packed with many of the world’s best players.1Imagine how good Peyton Manning would be if whomever he played for could spend three times as much as 90 percent of NFL teams.As the primary striker for such a juggernaut, it can be hard to detangle Messi’s goal-scoring prowess from Barcelona’s general offensive dominance. And the 2013-14 season hasn’t helped: Battling minor injuries and facing competition for touches from superstar arrival Neymar, Messi’s most recent season was slightly below par by his standards, yet Barca finished second in La Liga. (And in the seven games Messi missed, they went 6-1.) He still scored 41 goals, but that total was less than the 60 he scored the year before, and fewer than the 51 that rival Cristiano Ronaldo of Real Madrid scored en route to capturing the Ballon d’Or.I think this criticism is fair — and I found it intriguing enough to look into the matter myself. So I gathered and organized data, crunched it, re-crunched it, and gathered more data2The crux of my research is based on play-by-play data (plus x-y coordinates) from ESPN’s partnership with the sports data companies Opta and TruMedia. and crunched it some more.By now I’ve studied nearly every aspect of Messi’s game, down to a touch-by-touch level: his shooting and scoring production; where he shoots from; how often he sets up his own shots; what kind of kicks he uses to make those shots; his ability to take on defenders; how accurate his passes are; the kind of passes he makes; how often he creates scoring chances; how often those chances lead to goals; even how his defensive playmaking compares to other high-volume shooters.And that’s just the stuff that made it into this article. I arrived at a conclusion that I wasn’t really expecting or prepared for: Lionel Messi is impossible.It’s not possible to shoot more efficiently from outside the penalty area than many players shoot inside it. It’s not possible to lead the world in weak-kick goals and long-range goals. It’s not possible to score on unassisted plays as well as the best players in the world score on assisted ones. It’s not possible to lead the world’s forwards both in taking on defenders and in dishing the ball to others. And it’s certainly not possible to do most of these things by insanely wide margins.But Messi does all of this and more.ScoringI think it’s fair to say that goals mean more in soccer than points do in most sports. And Messi scores a lot of them. Since the end of the 2010 World Cup, Messi has been responsible for 291 goals and assists in the 201 of his games in club and national team play tracked by the sports analytics company Opta. How does that compare with other soccer stars across top leagues around the world? (The Opta data set includes 16,574 players and 24,904 games in both league and international play since the end of the 2010 World Cup.)Coming in just behind Messi with 289 goals and assists since the 2010 World Cup is Cristiano Ronaldo, Messi’s rival from Real Madrid. When it comes to scoring, these two aren’t just on top of the pile, they’re hang-gliding somewhere way above it. Messi and Ronaldo have been compared to each other so often by sports media and fans alike that it almost feels trite to compare them again, but it can���t be helped. If we want to compare Messi to all players with a remotely similar volume of production, we’re left with Ronaldo.Now let’s leave assists aside for a second (much more on them later), and concentrate on Messi’s shooting. Like Ronaldo, he has an enormous number of goals, but also takes an enormous number of shots. If this were basketball, we might expect a negative (or at least decelerating) relationship between shot volume and shot efficiency — the more shots a player takes the less efficient he is.3Unless he is LeBron James. But it turns out this isn’t really the case in soccer: More efficient shooters tend to take more shots. Despite this, Messi is still a trend-breaker:4For this plot, I’ve excluded penalty shots, shootout shots and direct free kicks. I’ll discuss those separately. Of the 866 players who qualified for that plot — by playing in 50-plus games and averaging at least one shot attempt per game — Messi is the ninth-most efficient shooter overall (Ronaldo is 173rd), and he’s by far the most efficient of anyone with a similar shot volume. The highest-volume shooter who is more efficient is Mario Gomez, the former Bayern Munich striker, who takes about two-thirds as many shots as Messi.But in soccer, unlike in basketball, shooting efficiency isn’t the single most important stat. Since the value of a possession in soccer is much lower, so is the cost of missing a shot (and missed shots often have good outcomes as well). That said, quality shot opportunities in soccer are still a limited resource, so making the most of them is important.To generalize a bit, some of the value a shooter provides comes from taking more and better shots (e.g. taking them closer to the goal, at a better angle, amid fewer defenders, etc.), and some of it comes from putting in those shots more often. For example, Messi’s typical regular (non-set piece) shot comes from 14.9 yards out, while Ronaldo’s average shot comes from 20.1 yards out. ESPN/TruMedia has a model for estimating the chances of a player making each shot he takes based on type and location (this metric is known as expected goals). The difference between a player’s actual goals and his expected goals is called “goals above average” (or GAA). Because Messi takes shots that are more likely to go in, his average attempt has an expectation of .182 goals, while the average Ronaldo shot has an expectation of .124 goals — so we would expect Messi’s shooting to be more efficient based on that alone. However, Messi has also exceeded that expectation by a greater amount than Ronaldo has. Messi scored .220 goals per shot attempt for .038 GAA per goal. Ronaldo scored .139 goals per attempt, so he had .015 GAA per goal.Here’s a comparison of the top 20 shot-takers overall (regular shots in all games since the 2010 World Cup):In this group, Messi both takes the best shots and does the most with those attempts.If we break this down using shot-location data, it’s clear that Messi is highly efficient across a wide range of distances.The percentage of shots Messi makes from outside the penalty area is absolutely stunning. He scores almost as often per shot from outside the penalty area (12.1 percent) as most players do inside it (13.1 percent).Of 8,335 players in our dataset who have taken at least one shot from outside the box, only 1,835 have scored from that distance at any point. There are 47 players with 50 or more attempts from outside the box without a single goal, and about 500 with at least 20 attempts and no goals. Messi leads the world with 21 goals from outside the penalty area, on just 173 shot attempts.Ronaldo takes more than twice as many shots from this distance, but still has fewer goals overall. Messi, meanwhile, scores at a remarkable rate. Adjusting for shot quality with the GAA model, Messi is running 12.6 goals above expectation (based on shot-by-shot expectation, not the trend line in the chart). Ronaldo, with more than twice as many shots, ran just 5.5 goals above expectation, and no one but Messi is higher than 7.5 goals.The 21st of those outside-the-penalty-area goals was Messi’s extra-time winner against Iran, which came from 29 yards out (33 yards to where it went in). That goal was quintessential Messi: He got the ball on the right side of the field, held it for a few seconds, broke to the middle and — in heavy traffic — swerved it in on off his left foot. Plus he did it all without an assist.Unassisted ShootingDespite dishing a large number of assists (more on that to come), Messi sometimes gets called “selfish.” But maybe he isn’t selfish enough.About 44 percent of Messi’s “open” (non-set piece) shots are “individual plays,” taken without an assist.5I should note that the data on this has a little gray area. The play-by-play data lists “assisters” on several plays that are nonetheless designated as “individual plays” and for which no one was awarded an assist. I treated all such shots as unassisted, even if another player’s assistance was noted. This is lower than the 46 percent of unassisted shots for players overall, but Messi scores on these shots more than 23 percent of the time, compared to all players’ 5 percent. Additionally, he gains .089 goals above average on each unassisted shot. Ronaldo gains .023, and the average player is slightly negative at -.004 GAA.Let’s look at how Messi’s assisted shooting compares to other players with 100 or more shots both assisted and unassisted6Since assist-related stats tend to be dependent on a team’s offensive system, for this chart I’ve grouped shots by team, so it only includes Messi’s shots for Barcelona and Ronaldo’s for Real Madrid.:Somehow, Messi has done even better when taking it on his own than when somebody sets him up. Moreover, on unassisted shots he shoots nearly 10 percent and .044 GAA better than the next best player (Sergio Aguero for Manchester City) does, despite taking the fourth-most such shots of the 28 players in the group.To be clear, you could probably choose any skills for your axes and produce a similar graph. Messi can shoot it just about any which way. Here are some miscellaneous shooting stats he’s accrued at Barcelona:Messi loves his left foot, shooting with it 78 percent of the time, and scoring 23 percent. But don’t sleep on his right foot: When he uses it, he scores 23 percent of the time. He shoots slightly below average on (a limited number of) headers (10 percent vs. 13 percent).About 8 percent of his shots are “weak” kicks (compared to 6 percent for all players in the data set), but he makes 27 percent of them, and does so more often than we’d expect. He has an average GAA of .026 on those kicks (all players: 5 percent shooting on weak kicks with -.055 GAA). Only 5 percent of his kicks are “strong” ones (compared to 8 percent for all players), but those kicks score 36 percent of the time, and have .251 GAA each! All players have scored on 11 percent of their “strong kick” shots and have an average .051 GAA per shot.About 12 percent of his shots have “swerve” on them (compared to 10 percent for all players); 31 percent of those swervy kicks score, for a huge .202 GAA (all players: 8 percent, .020 GAA).On direct free kicks (like the one he scored on against Nigeria), Messi has scored about 8 percent of the time (compared to all players’ 5 percent), with .021 GAA per shot (Ronaldo has scored on 7 percent with an identical .021 GAA).7I’ve excluded other set-piece attempts because they’re very dependent on each player’s role on his team. Ronaldo has taken five times as many shots in those situations, but Messi has been slightly more efficient.Messi has scored on 86 percent of his penalty kicks, versus an average of 77 percent for all players. But put one check-mark in Ronaldo’s column, as he has scored on 93 percent of his penalty attempts. Since both are the primary PK-takers for both their club and national teams, this difference — if it held up in the long run — would be worth about three-quarters of a goal per year.To make all those unassisted shots possible, Messi has to take on a lot of defenders one on one. There’s a stat for that, and in my view it’s one of the most revealing, reflecting both Messi’s skill and style, and the relationship between the two. Of all forwards in our data set who’ve played 100-plus games, he “takes on” defenders the most, and he’s the most successful at it.The only forward who takes on defenders nearly as aggressively as Messi is Luis Suarez, the Uruguayan striker for Liverpool who is perhaps too aggressive for his own good (ahem). Suarez is successful less than 35 percent of the time.This may help explain how Messi gets so many better shots, and why his “unassisted” shots are so good. It also points to the main stylistic difference between Messi and Ronaldo: Ronaldo takes more mid-range shots but misses a lot of them; Messi tries to beat a lot more defenders, loses sometimes, and then makes up for it (and then some) by having better assisting and shooting opportunities as a result. That’s not to say one approach is better than the other, but note that it means that the observed shooting gap between them is at least somewhat exaggerated. While Messi appears to shoot much more efficiently, that’s partly because he loses the ball more during failed take-on attempts, while Ronaldo loses it more because of missed shots. Only the second of those is accounted for in shooting stats. (I’ll get more into how we can account for loss of possession in the touch-by-touch analysis later.)Passing and AssistsFrom the above, you might think Messi is a selfish player. Or you might assume that if Messi is so good at shooting, he’d focus on it to the exclusion of other skills. But, in true Wayne Gretzky-esque fashion, Messi is also one of the top assisters in our data set. Once again, that makes him a crazy outlier: No one else (aside from, yes, Ronaldo) even comes close to his combination of goals scored versus goals dished.Not only is Messi the top game-by-game goal-scorer of the last four years, he’s the third-most productive distributor of assists, despite being the primary scorer on his own team! Only Mesut Ozil and Franck Ribery8Frank Ribery is a terrific winger/midfielder who can sometimes put the ball in the net, but he’s the fourth-leading scorer on powerhouse Bayern Munich’s Bundesliga-winning squad. earned more assists than Messi, and Ozil did it on Real Madrid9Messi and his Argentina teammate Angel di Maria (also of Real Madrid) are tied to four decimal places, but Messi just edges him in the fifth. — setting up Cristiano Ronaldo.But how does he do it? The biggest obstacle to evaluating Messi’s passing ability is accounting for the fact that he plays for the most pass-happy team in the world. Watching Barcelona can be a bit like watching a playground game of keep away. Barcelona’s players are infamous for their “tiki-taka” style of play, which relies on an enormous amount of short, high percentage passing. Above all else, they try to maintain possession of the ball until a chance opens up. This sounds like a great strategy, but there’s a reason it isn’t employed universally: To make it work, a team has to be stocked with amazing passers, and it has to have strikers capable of creating chances against set defenses.10Whether “possession football” — much less the extreme form employed by Barca — is even a good strategy at all is controversial. In a seminal 1968 study, Charles Reep noted that 80 percent of goals came from possessions involving three or fewer passes, and that successfully completing a lot of passes without losing the ball was very difficult. He thought this proved that possession football was inefficient, but many have disagreed with his logic, and subsequent studies have shown mixed results.Messi is both of those things. And what’s more, his passing profile is nothing like the other Barcelona forwards, who typically send 72 percent of their passes back or square. Messi is far more likely to try to advance the ball toward the goal, and far more likely to succeed: